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Minta tolong yaa, Jelaskan Past Perfect dan Past Continuous. Terimakasih

Dear Olivia,

Ok, sekarang kita mau belajar tentang “PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE”. Ok, kalau liat dari namanya, tentu kita udah tahu ya bahwa ini digunakan untuk waktu lampau. Kemudian, kalau kalian masih ingat bentuk “PRESENT CONTINUOUS”, akan sangat membantu dalam mempelajari tenses ini karena mereka memiliki bentuk yang sama. Ok, kita akan belajar dulu tentang bentuk “PAST CONTINUOUS” ini.

Bentuk past Continuous tidak jauh berbeda dengan “PRESENT CONTINUOUS” cuman bedanya hanya dalam bentuk “TO BE” saja. Kalau dalam “PRESENT CONTINUOUS” bentuk ‘TO BE” di masa sekarang, yakni : is, am, dan are, maka bentuk “PAST CONTINUOUS” menggunakan bentuk “TO BE” masa lampau. Kita lihat Rumus berikut beserta contohnya :

( + ) S + was / were + Ving :

She was studying when I came.

We were cleaning the room at six p.m. yesterday.

(- ) S + was / were + not + Ving :

She was not studying when I came.

We were not cleaning the room at this time yesterday.

(?) Was / Were + S + Ving :

Was she studying when I came?

Were they cleaning the room at this time yesterday?

Ok, itu tadi adalah bentuk Past Continuous dalam kalimat positif, negatif dan pertanyaan. Mari sekarang kita belajar penggunaannya dalam kalimat. Past Continuous akan digunakan dalam keadaan seperti berikut ini :

1. Interrupted Action in the Past
(Kegiatan masa lampau yang disela oleh kegiatan lain)

Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. (Kita menggunakan Past Continuous untuk menyatakan kegiatan di masa lampau yang di sela oleh kegiatan lain yang lebih pendek. Sela ini bisa berupa sela kegiatan maupun sela waktu)

When I was studying, my mother came in.

2. Specific Time as an Interruption (Waktu

In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption. (Hal ini mirip dengan penjelasan pada poin sebelumnya. Hanya, interupsi / sela bukanlah sebuah kegiatan melainkan sebuah bentuk waktu yang spesifik) Contoh : At six p.m. yesterday my mother was visiting her friend.

At this time yesterday the man was standing in front of my house.

Itulah bentuk dan kegunaan Past Continuous secara singkat.
 
PAST PERFECT TENSE  gak jauh beda dengan tense PRESENT PERFECT TENSE, cuma waktunya di masa lampau. Ok, buat tahu bagaimana bentuk dan penggunaan PAST PERFECT, mari kita lihat penjelasan berikut :

1. The Form of Past Perfect Tense (Bentuk Past Perfect)

Kalau kalian ingat PRESENT PERFECT TENSE, maka bentuk PAST PERFECT tidak jauh beda dengan present perfect tense itu. Bentuk PAST PERFECT TENSE dapat dirumuskan sebagai berikut :

(+) S + had + PAST PARTICIPLE (V3)
They had taken the money before we came.
( - ) S + had not + PAST PARTICIPLE
We had not seen him before you came.
( ? ) Had + S + PAST PARTICIPLE
Had he left the place before we came?

Mungkin ada yang tanya ya apa itu PAST PARTICIPLE? Ya, PAST PARTICIPLE adalah yang lebih kita kenal dengan kata kerja bentuk ketiga. Untuk melihat kata kerja bentuk kedua dan ketiga kalian bias lihat lagi di postingan sebelumnya. Ok, moga aja jelas ya tentang bentuk dari PAST PERFECT ini, nah sekarang kita akan melihat bagaimana penggunaan tense ini.

2. The Use of Past Perfect Tense (Penggunaan PAST PERFECT)

Ok, sekarang kita akan melihat penggunaan dari PAST PERFECT. Past PERFECT is used to express a past activity that occurred before another time in the past. (PAST PERFECT digunakan untuk mengungkapkan sebuah kejadian yang terjadi sebelum kejadian lain di masa lampau).

Nah, dari penjelasan tersebut jelas gak??? Ok, kalau belum jelas ini ada contoh.

Yesterday John went to the hospital to visit Sam. Unfortunately, Sam HAD GONE home when John arrived there.(Kemarin John pergi ke rumah sakit untuk mengunjungi Sam. Sayangnya Sam telah pulang ke rumah sebelum John datang).

Dari contoh diatas, kita lihat bahwa ketika John datang, ternyata Sam SUDAH PULANG. Kepulangan tersebut terjadi sebelum John datang. Contoh ini menegaskan kegunaan PAST PERFECT yaitu mengungkapkan sebuah kejadian yang terjadi sebelum kejadian lain di masa lampau. Ok ,moga - moga dengan penjelasan tersebut jadi jelas ya BENTUK serta PENGGUNAAN PAST PERFECT ini. Ok, sampai disini dulu postingan kali ini, keep on learning English.
 

Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 10
02-11-2008 Oliviaa
00-00-0000 Operator TIT

Tl0ng buatkan sya cntoh analytical exposition yg topikx acra tV.Cnthx Afi,indonesian idol.Dll.Lz cptn y

Dear Chacha,

OK, Chacha here is the answer:

Laptop as Students' Friend

Conventionally, students need book, pen, eraser, drawing book, ruler and such other stuff. Additionally, in this multimedia era, students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function.

\"\"First, modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Since there is a laptop on every students' desk, this method will help student to get better understanding.
Secondly, finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. The students just need to brows that online shop, decide which computer or laptop they need, then complete the transaction. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. That is really easy and save time and money.
From all of that, having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. This online way is recommended since online shop also provide several laptop types. Students just need to decide which type they really need.

 


Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 11
02-11-2008 Chacha
00-00-0000 Operator TIT

Tl0ng bwtkan saya cntoh analytical exposition yg topikx acr d tV.Cntohx Afì,inb0x dll.

Dear Chacha,

Sebelumnya aku mau tanya apa ini Chacha dari SMAN Kertosono?

Laptop as Students' Friend

Conventionally, students need book, pen, eraser, drawing book, ruler and such other stuff. Additionally, in this multimedia era, students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function.

\"\"First, modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Since there is a laptop on every students' desk, this method will help student to get better understanding.
Secondly, finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. The students just need to brows that online shop, decide which computer or laptop they need, then complete the transaction. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. That is really easy and save time and money.
From all of that, having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. This online way is recommended since online shop also provide several laptop types. Students just need to decide which type they really need.

 


Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 11
02-11-2008 Chacha.
00-00-0000 Operator TIT

saya murid kelas 12, bpk bisa tolong buatkan contoh karangan yang ada arti, karakter dan kesimpulan / solusinya dari tema hacker dan cracker. mohon dijawab sesegera mungkin. makasih

Terimakasih atas partisipasi Diane. Tetapi rupanya pertanyaan anda masuk pada materi SMA sehingga silahkan kirimkan kembali pertanyaan dengan pilihan level SMA.

Akan lebih baik jika anda mencoba terlebih dahulu membuat karangan tersebut. Selanjutnya tim kami akan membantu kesulitan yang anda temui. Selamat mencoba, terimakasih.


Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 8
02-11-2008 Diane
00-00-0000 Suzana Endang Cahyani, S.Pd

kepada bapak/ ibu, tolong berikan contoh dari discussion text.

Discussion

The function of the text is to present (at least) two points of view about an issue.

The generic structure of this text is: issue, arguments for and against or statements of differing points of view, conclusion or recommendations.

 This text has the similar language features as anal;ytical exposition.

Example:

Boxing

By Kerry Williams

There was a lot of disscusion about whether boxing should be banned.

The  people who agree with this idea, such as Sarah, claim that if they do carry on boxing they should wear something to protect their heads. They also argue that people who do boxing could have brain damage and get seriously hurt. A further point they make is that most of the people that have died did have families.

However, there are also strong arguments againts this point of view. Another group of people believe that boxing should not be banned. They say that why they ivent it if is a dangerous sport. They say that boxing is a good sport, people enjoy it. A furthermore reason is if they ban boxing it will ruin people’s careers.

After looking at the different points of view and the evidence for them i think boxing should be banned because five hundred people have died in boxing since 1884.

 

Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 8
02-11-2008 erika
00-00-0000 Suzana Endang Cahyani, S.Pd

k tolong buatin deskripsi tentang binatang y,besok dukumpulin.

My Bombi

by Dea

 

Bombi is my playful black cat.

 

This cat is always playful. It likes playing with anything. It sometimes plays with me. It likes playing with a ball very much. It is very clever. Sometimes it is very naughty.

 

My Bombi is small but fat. It has soft fur. The fur is black. Bombi has a long tail. Its eyes are round. It looks cute. It is always near me.

 

Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 9
02-11-2008 ana
00-00-0000 Suzana Endang Cahyani, S.Pd

k tolong bikinin aku deskripsi tentang hewan donk,tapi jangan panjang-panjang y.thx

My Bombi

by Dea

 

Bombi is my playful black cat.

 

This cat is always playful. It likes playing with anything. It sometimes plays with me. It likes playing with a ball very much. It is very clever. Sometimes it is very naughty.

 

My Bombi is small but fat. It has soft fur. The fur is black. Bombi has a long tail. Its eyes are round. It looks cute. It is always near me.

 

Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 9
02-11-2008
00-00-0000 Suzana Endang Cahyani, S.Pd

tolong donk pak berikan penjelasan tentang penggunaan noun phrase dan adjective phrase????????????tolong banget yah.......

Dear Berta,

Read the following explanation: 

The Noun Phrase

Like all phrases, the constituents of the English noun phrase can be analyzed into both functional constituents and formal constituents. From a functional point of view, the noun phrase has four major components, occurring in a fixed order:

  • the determinative, that constituent which determines the reference of the noun phrase in its linguistic or situational context;
  • premodification, which comprises all the modifying or describing constituents before the head, other than the determiners;
  • the head, around which the other constituents cluster; and
  • postmodification, those which comprise all the modifying constituents placed after the head
In the diagram below, notice that each functional component of a noun phrase (NP) can be further subclassified as we trace the diagram from left to right until we find that we have form classes (of the kind we discussed above) filling each constituent category.

\"The

Depending on the context of situation, we choose determiners and modifiers according to our needs in identifying and specifying the referent of the NP. Sometimes we need several determiners and modifiers to clarify the referent (all my books in that box); sometimes we need none at all (Liz).

That diagram is one way to represent the dual nature of a phrase. Each phrase, remember, is a merger of both form and function, and, as complex as it looks, the diagram illustrates only some of the complexities of the noun phrase in English. (For a more thorough treatment, see Halliday 1994 and Quirk et al. 1985.) Another way to illustrate some of the possible arrangements of form and function in the noun phrase is presented in the table below.

Some Examples of the Noun Phrase in English
             
FUNCTION Determiner Premodifier Head Postmodifier
 
  (a)       lions  
E (b)   the   young  
X (c)   the information age  
A (d)       each of the children
M (e)   some badly needed time with the family
P (f)   this   conclusion to the story
L (g)   all my   children  
E (h)   several new mystery books which we recently enjoyed
S (i)   such a marvelous data bank filled with information
  (j)   a better person than I
             
FORMS Pronoun Participle Noun Prepositional Phrase
Article Noun Adjective Relative Clause
Quantifier Adjective Phrase Pronoun Nonfinite Clause
      Complementation

Notice that several forms classes can be "reused." For example, in the noun phrase it is possible to use quantifiers to function as pre-determiners or as post-determiners. This kind of "recycling" is known as recursion. Notice also that phrases and even whole clauses can be "recycled" into the noun phrase. This process of placing a phrase of clause within another phrase of clause is called embedding. It is through the processes of recursion and embedding that we are able to take a finite number of forms (words and phrases) and construct an infinite number of expressions. Furthermore, embedding also allows us to construct an infinitely long structure, in theory anyway.

For example, the nursery rhyme "The House That Jack Built" plays on the process of embedding in English noun phrases. The nursery rhyme is one sentence that continuously grows by embedding more and more relative clauses as postmodifiers in the noun phrase that ends the sentence:

This is the house that Jack built.

This is the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

This is the mouse that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

This is the cat that scared the mouse that ate the malt hat lay in the house that Jack built.

This is the dog that chased the cat that scared the mouse that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

This is the boy who loves the dog that chased the cat that scared the mouse that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

And so on. In theory, we could go on forever because language relies so heavily on embedding.

 

 

The Adjective Phrase

The adjective phrase in English has four functional constituents,

  • premodification, those modifying, describing, or qualifying constituents which precede the head;
  • the head, which is an adjective or participle serving as the focus of the phrase;
  • postmodification, that modifying constituent which follows the head; and
  • complementation, (the major subcategory of postmodification here) that constituent which follows any postmodification and completes the specification of a meaning implied by the head.
   


\"The

To see some examples of adjective phrases, examine the table below.

Some Examples of the Adjective Phrase in English
           
FUNCTION Premodifier Head Postmodifier
           
  (a)     happy  
E (b)     excited indeed
X (c)   partly cloudy  
A (d)     young in spirit
M (e)   very energetic for his age
P (f)   so extremely sweet  
L (g)   too good to be true
E (h)     hot enough for me
S (i)   quite worried about the results of the test
  (j)   unusually sunny for this time of year
           
FORM     Adverb
Adverb Adjective Prepositional Phrase
Adverb Phrase   Infinitive Clause

Notice that the order of constituents in the adjective phrase, like all other phrase structures in English, is relatively fixed, helping us determine the constituent elements.

 


Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 11
02-11-2008 berta
00-00-0000 Operator TIT

pak puthut..tolong carikan saya 2 contoh teks discussion beserta 5 soal pilihan ganda dari masing-masing teks tersebut ? dan tolong carikan 1 teks explanation ya,,pak ..? thanks..

Dear Novia,

Berikut ini contoh teks discussion.  

Hunting Fox

Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban.
Many farmer and even conservationists, however, have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.
(Taken from: www.bbc.co.uk)

Generic Structure Analysis
Stating the issue; hunting fox.
Supporting point; farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok.
Contrastive point; many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel.
Recommendation; Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way.
Language Feature Analysis
Introducing category participant; farmer, conservationists.
Using thinking verb; believe.
Using connectives;
Using modalities; must, always

Anda masih bisa melihat contoh teks discussion yang lain dengan menganalisis teks berdasarkan generic structure dan language feature diatas. Mohon maaf kami tidak memberikan contoh soal pilihan gandanya.

Untuk contoh teks explanation adalah:

Tsunami
The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.

A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries.

Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.

As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.

Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. (simplified from www.panda.org)

Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 12
02-11-2008 novia
00-00-0000 Operator TIT

k arti dri Eeny, Meeny, Miny, Moe apa c? oiia, bedain imperative & acti0n verbs di pr0cedure gmana k? thx ya

Many stories exist about the "real" meaning of the first line, although the most commonly accepted theory is that they are just nonsense syllables. Another theory posed by Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas in their book, The Hiram Key, suggests that the words are the first numbers in the counting system of the pre-Celtic Britons. The Lakeland Dialect Society more specifically suggests that this is just one of many versions of Celtic sheep-counting rhymes, but it observes that a large number of 19th century English publications exist in which these counting rhymes were more often used to amuse children than to count sheep.Actually there are some versions of this rhyme, such as American, British, Mexican, Singapore, etc. The following is the American one:

Eeny, meeny, miny, moe

Catch a tiger by the toe

If he hollers let him go,

Eeny, meeny, miny, moe.This rhyme is usually used to begin a game, to decide who becomes “it”.  

 


Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 9
01-11-2008 mila
00-00-0000 Suzana Endang Cahyani, S.Pd