The sense of taste
The sense of taste is one of a person’s five senses. We taste with the help of taste buds in the tongue.
There are four kinds of tastes: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. All other tastes are just mixtures of two or more of these main types.
The surface of the tongue has more than fifteen thousand taste-buds (or cells). These are connected to the brain by special nerves which send the so-called ‘taste messages’.
When the tongue comes into contact with food of any kind, the taste buds will pick up the taste. The nerves then send a message to the brain. This will make us aware of the taste. All these happen in just a few seconds.
There are four kinds of taste buds, each of which is sensitive to only a particular taste.
These four groups are located in different part of tongue.
The taste – buds for salty and sweet tastes are found round the tip of the tongue and along it sides. Sour tastes can be picked up only at the sides of the tongue. The taste – buds for the bitter tastes are found at the innermost edge of the tongue. There is taste – buds at the centre of the tongue.
The sense of smell and sight can affect taste. The good smell of food increases its taste. Similarly, attractive colors can make food appear tastier and more delicious. If food does not smell good or is dull – colored, it will look tasty and may not taste good at all.
Very hot cold sensations can make the taste – buds insentive. Food that is too hot or too cold, when placed in the mouth, will have no taste at all.
1. The purpose of the text is ……
a. to explain how we can taste any food in the mouth
b. to give a report about the sense of taste
c. to inform how important the tongue is
d. to describe the use of the tongue
e. to tell the taste of the food.
2. When we eat very hot or cold food ……..
a. the food will lose its taste
b. the food won’t smell good
c. the taste of the food increases
d. the taste – buds will sensitive
e. the taste – buds round the tip of the tongue
3. The senses of smell and sight …….
a. increase the taste of the food
b. affect the taste of the food
c. make food more delicious
d. make the food look good
e. make the food attractive
4. We can taste any kind of food because of ……
a. the good smell of food
b. the four main kinds of taste
c. the taste – buds in the tongue
d. the senses of smell and sight
e. the taste – buds round of the tip of the tongue
The stomach is the first stop in the process of food digestion. The inner walls of the stomach, also called stomach lining, are bathed in about a gallon of stomach acid and digestive enzymes.
Gastritis happens when the stomach lining is irritated, inflamed or inflected. Usually, a person with gastritis will feel some cramps and pains in the middle or left upper belly, just under the ribs. Other symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating and belching. A wound in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer and it caused more pain than ordinary gastritis. Blood may appear in vomit or stool. This loss of blood may cause anemia, which, will make the person feel weak, tired and dizzy. When there is an inflection, there usually is a fever.
It used to be thought that the causes of gastritis are spicy food, alcohol and lifestyle related factors like stress, along with long term some painkillers and anti inflammation drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen. But in the early eighties, a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori was found to be responsible for most cases of gastritis and gastric ulcer. These bacteria are not killed by stomach acid because they live within the gel like mucus membrane that protects the stomach from its own acid. They have also developed a clever mechanism to neutralize the acid that come in contact with, and release a by product of gases. These bacteria enter the body via contaminated food and water, but still can be eliminated with the right antibiotics.
5. Why is gastric ulcer different from gastritis?
A. Because it causes more pain than ordinary gastritis
B. Because it is not caused by Helicobacter pylori
C. Because it cannot be eliminated with the right antibiotics
D. Because it causes death
E. Because it doesn’t happen in the stomach
6. Which of the following things is analytically the cause of gastritis and gastric ulcer?
A. Spicy food
C. Helicobacter pylori
7. The text mostly tells us about …..
A. Food digestion
D. The symptoms of gastritis
E. The cause of gastritis
8. “These bacteria enter the body via contaminated food and water, but still can be eliminated with the right antibiotics.”
The italic word can be replaced by ….
9. The communicative purpose of the text is ….
A. To describe stomach
B. To retell the process of food digestion
C. To persuade the readers to check their health
D. To inform the readers about gastritis
E. To tell an amusing experience
Almost everyone eats bread daily, especially for breakfast. Bread making is not a complicated task. You must have an oven, water, sugar, salt, flour and yeast. The basic ingredient is flour comes from wheat. There are two kinds of flour which is soft, and the hard one.
Hard flour, made by Winter wheat, is better choice for making bread. Bread using hard flour produces better texture and taste. Luke warm water is added to the flour to make dough.
Yeast is a microscopic organism, the size may not be impressive but it is capable of producing carbon dioxide. It is also easy to use. Powered yeast needs only be dissolved in water to be used instantly. Yeast works best in the presence of sugar and warmth.
Besides, encouraging yeast to grow quickly in the dough, sugar is added to give flour to the bread. Salt is added for the same purpose, to make the bread taste nice. However, it has the reverse effect on yeast, unlike sugar. The next ingredient is oil, olive oil, com oil, peanut oil and butter. It is essential for making the bread tender. After mixing with all these ingredients, the flour are hard beaten before sent to the oven.
10. Which flour is made by Winter wheat?
a. Soft flour is made by Winter wheat
b. Winter wheat means better bread
c. Winter wheat tastes better
d. Winter wheat is the basic ingredient
e. Hard flour is made by winter wheat
11. What does powered yeast refer to?
a. Yeast that is capable of producing carbon dioxide
b. Yeast a microscopic organism
c. Yeast that can be dissolved in water
d. Yeast that cannot mix with sugar
e. An organism that comes from wheat
12. Which wheat is tastier?
a. Soft wheat is tastier
b. Wheat mixed with salt and sugar tastes better
c. The wheat that produces flour tastes better
d. Winter wheat tastes better
e. Hard bread made by wheat is tastier
13. Which of the statement is true?
a. Had water is added to the flour to make dough
b. Yeast is very impressive in size
c. Yeast works worst n the presence of sugar and warmth
d. Yeast is microscopic organism
e. Bread using soft flour makes better texture and taste
14. What is the communicative purpose of the text above?
a. The process of making a proper bread
b. How to select correct wheat
c. Tell us the important of bread
d. To tell us how easy to make bread
e. To tell us why bread is served as breakfast
15. What is the kind of this text?
a. Narrative text
b. Report text
c. Discussion text
d. Explanation text
e. Received text
16. What form of verb does the text mostly use?
a. Simple present tense
b. Past tense
c. Present perfect tense
17. “However, it has the reverse effect on yeast, unlike sugar” ( paragraph 4) the word “reverse” means ……
a. Turn over
b. In this context it means opposite
c. Taking a ‘U’ turn
d. Change of direction
e. Reverse means going backward